Antibiotics and other drugs - Infectious diseases
In Russia, as in many other countries, buy antibiotics online
are sold without prescription. And if on the one hand it makes them easier to use, then the other - due to common human disorder - only contributes to the development of resistance to it from various pathogens. Often such drugs treat children especially suspicious parents. They feel that the temperature that lasts a few days - a tragedy. For a long time it is no secret that the cause of many diseases are microorganisms: bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa. Antibiotics only work on bacteria. So use them, for example, the flu, SARS and other viral infections, inappropriate.
However, doctors warn - you need to be especially careful in the choice of therapy, as uncontrolled use of antibiotics can adversely affect both the body and the disease that tried to cure. For example, if you do not spend on drink a course of antibiotic therapy until the end, some microorganisms can survive by acquiring resistance to use antibiotics. And now not only is that treatment should start again (and this plus everything else, and the toxic effect of both on the organism as a whole, and those bacteria that normally have to live with us), so also changed antibacterial preparation on the more powerful or more new, to which the majority of micro-organisms has not yet had time to develop resistance. So antibiotics should be taken only on doctor's advice.
Against what are antibiotics?
Microorganisms vary widely in the severity of their disease-causing properties. Some of them are able to overcome the defenses of the human body and cause extremely serious and even fatal diseases (causative agents of plague, meningitis), with the other body to cope without assistance (for example, agents of colds).
Depending on the internal organization of the microorganisms are divided into 4 groups: bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa (amoeba, giardia, etc.).
Bacteria, fungi, and protozoa have the cellular structure comprise DNA and RNA, and protein synthesis sitemy ATP ( "fuel" for biochemical reactions), and therefore capable of self-propagation.
Viruses deprived of cellular organization. They represent a molecule of DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein capsule and are absolute parasites that are able to show signs of life (especially multiply) only after penetration into cells "master" (plant, animal, human), using their cell as biochemical "mini-factories".
Features of the medical terminology
The first substances damaging effects on microorganisms, but acceptable for a man, were found among derivatives of synthetic dyes, they have been used for the treatment of syphilis and were called "chemotherapy" and the treatment process was called chemotherapy. Today, under chemotherapy generally involve treatment of cancer, that is not quite true.
Somewhat later, scientists learned how to exploit the phenomenon of the opposition (antagonism) bacteria. The fact that bacteria are distributed almost everywhere in nature (in soil, water, etc.), as well as other living creatures are forced to each other struggle for existence. And the main weapon in this fight are special substances produced by some types of bacteria, and the detrimental effect on other species. These substances are called antibiotics.
Unfortunately, so far not found antibacterial drugs that would suppress the vital activity of both bacteria and viruses, as differences in the structure and characteristics of the metabolism of these microorganisms are fundamental. Medications that can effectively act on the virus, despite significant advances in molecular biology and biochemistry, is still not enough, and their effectiveness is not high.
So, there are antibiotics - a substance of natural origin - and chemotherapy - is artificially created substances having a similar effect, the combined generic term "antibiotics". Features terminology can cause difficulties for the layman. Sometimes a pharmacy can be heard, as the buyer is seeking a response from the pharmacist: "Biseptolum (or, eg, ciprofloxacin) - an antibiotic or not?" The fact that these two drugs are antibacterial agents from the group of chemotherapeutic agents. But to treat the differences between antibiotics and chemotherapy are not very important, so the separation of antibiotics and chemotherapy drugs are slowly but surely becoming part of history.
What are antibiotics?
It is important to know that human cells vital processes are fundamentally different from the bacterial cell life processes. Antibacterial drugs have a selective effect is on life processes of bacteria, inhibiting them, and do not affect the processes occurring in the cells of the human body. Therefore, presently known antimicrobial agents are classified based on their mechanism of action and chemical structure.
For example, some antibiotics inhibit the synthesis of the outer shell (membrane) of the bacterial cell - structure, completely absent in the human cell. The most important among these groups of drugs are antibiotics penicillins, cephalosporins and some other preparations.
Others are antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis different stages of bacterial cells: are drugs belonging to the group of tetracyclines, macrolides, aminoglycosides.
Antibacterials differ significantly in their main property - antibacterial activity. The instructions for each of antibacterial drugs is a list of bacteria sensitive to it - the spectrum of its activities; some antibiotics (broad spectrum) act on the many types of bacteria, the other (narrow spectrum) - only for certain types of microbes.
Resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics
All living things, including bacteria that quickly adapt to adverse environmental conditions. Development of resistance to antibiotics - one of the most striking examples of such devices. It can be argued that sooner or later any kind of bacteria become immune to any antibiotics. Moreover, in respect of each preparation process is faster than in a larger amount of the substance used. As soon as the bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics, humanity is forced to invent new drugs. Therefore it can be assumed that if today we are going to appoint an uncontrolled antibiotics to all children, the grandchildren of tomorrow, we will have nothing to treat.
In the course of this race in a society there are conflicts of interest. Society as a whole is interested in reducing the cost of antibiotics and maintaining the balance between cost and efficiency of treatment. To achieve this goal it is necessary to restrict the use of antimicrobials strict indications, in order to avoid unnecessary costs for the development and production of new drugs. Manufacturers same antibacterial drugs, on the contrary, are interested in increasing sales volume (due to the expansion of indications), which will inevitably lead to a more rapid spread of microbial resistance to drugs and, as a consequence, the need to develop more and more new products.
Unfortunately, the massive and uncontrolled use of antimicrobial drugs has led to widespread microbial resistance to them. And in Russia the uncontrolled use of antibacterial drugs (pharmacies can their vacation without a prescription, that is unacceptable according to international rules) combined with a shortage of funds for health care. Today in our country the majority of the most common infections of pathogens resistant to drugs such as Biseptol, gentamicin, to the drug tetracycline.
It would seem that this problem can be easily solved in the lab. But, alas, in the application of modern methods of research the answer could be obtained only after 2-3 days. Consequently empirically prescribed antimicrobials in the real world, i.e. based on existing experience.
But even the most brilliant doctor can not save their own experience on the use of all the possible antibacterial drugs and confidently say that drug A better than drug B. In addition, it is necessary to consider how broadly in a particular geographical region spread among bacteria resistant to a particular drug. The doctor will inevitably have to be based on the results of special research, critical analysis of them, world and national experience, as well as recommendations for the treatment of standards developed by experts.